The indications for ureteroscopic lithotripsy have increased with endoscope miniaturization and powerful, precise endoscopic lithotrites like the holmium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Successful ureteropyeloscopic treatment with the currently available instrumentation and techniques is independent of the size, composition, and location of stones in the upper urinary tract. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy maintains a major role in treating uncomplicated, moderately sized upper urinary tract calculi. Complex upper urinary tract calculi, however, are best treated endoscopically. In addition, the endoscopic treatment of ureteral calculi is efficacious and definitive, albeit more invasive than extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.